Division 4. Planned Development Project Regulations  

§ 23-441. Applicability.
Latest version.

Planned development project (PDP) approval is required for projects meeting the criteria set forth in section 23-224.1.

A planned development project (PDP) may be approved in any zoning district through the process set forth in section 23-224. This section sets forth the standards for PDPs.

§ 23-442. General standards and regulations.
Latest version.

The PDP process is intended to promote high quality site design, and its use is encouraged. The process allows flexibility in project layout and relief from standard subdivision grids in order to preserve natural features of the land, maximize common open space and landscaping, and create vital neighborhoods. Creativity in housing types and site layout are encouraged.

Although the PDP process allows flexibility in regard to the requirements of this chapter, a PDP shall be approved only if the proposed plan demonstrates that the product will be superior to that of a standard subdivision. The PDP process is not intended to circumvent the regulations for residential development, but to allow creativity and variety. Deviation from the provisions of this chapter concerning lot size, setbacks, roadway design, and other requirements will be granted only if the proposed alternative allows for a superior project layout, provides enhanced open space and preservation of natural features, does not subvert the intent of this chapter, and does not compromise public safety.

a. Density and intensity. PDPs may not exceed the density or intensity limitations established in the Future Land Use Element of the Comprehensive Plan for the land use classification applicable to the property or the density or intensity limitations of the zoning district in which the property is located.

b. Land uses. Uses within a PDP are limited to permitted and special exception uses allowed in the zoning district in which the property is located, except that PDPs may include residential uses in areas where mixed use is a designated use under the Future Land Use classification of the property in the Comprehensive Plan. See Table 23-421 for permitted and special exception uses.

c. Development standards.

1. All planned developments shall comply with the provisions of this chapter, including land development regulations under article III and dimensional requirements for lots and structures under article IV and V, as applicable, unless specific waivers of requirements are approved under this section. (Note that a waiver of front yard requirements for accessory structures on subdivision lots with frontage on both an exterior and interior streets may be granted pursuant to section 23-522 without PDP approval.

2. All planned developments shall adhere to the minimum design standards set forth in this section for the type of PDP proposed.

3. All planned developments shall be consistent with all of the design guidelines set forth in this section for the type of PDP proposed. The "methods for achieving" a design guideline are suggestions; a guideline may be effectively addressed through other design features, not necessarily listed under a guideline.

d. Waivers. Waivers of specific development standards of this chapter may be granted under the PDP process, except that the provisions for concurrency pursuant to article VII, div. 1, for public facilities impact fees pursuant to article VII, div. 4, and for resource protection pursuant to article VI shall not be waived.

e. Master Plan. Approval of a master plan of the proposed development, encompassing the entire property, is required prior to or in conjunction with approval of a preliminary plan for the first phase of a residential PDP. (See subsection 23-224.2 b)2 for procedural requirements.) The purpose of the master plan is to establish an overall design for the development. It is a concept plan, showing generalized features of the project, including natural features, connections to surrounding roadways and proposed internal circulation, proposed neighborhoods with acreage and proposed housing types and densities, proposed open space and recreation areas, the concept for connecting with utilities, and proposed phasing. Approval of the master plan does not constitute approval of any phase or the specific number of lots or units to be permitted within any phase.

The master plan must demonstrate that the site design accomplishes the following:

a. Preserves and highlights the natural features of the property; incorporates existing trees, wetlands, ponds, natural topographic variation, and proposed storm water retention areas into the site layout and showcases them as design features for common enjoyment;

b. Proposes a coherent network of streets and bike/pedestrian paths connected to surrounding roadways;

c. Establishes discrete and identifiable neighborhoods and avoids the monotony of long rows or blocks of units or lots; provides a basis for varied streetscapes;

d. Provides for an identity and privacy for future residents, but does not create a development that is isolated from the surrounding community.

§ 23-443. Residential PDPs.
Effective on Tuesday, March 1, 2022

Sec. 23-443.1 Minimum design standards—Residential PDPs. The preliminary plan for a residential PDP shall demonstrate that the site design complies with the minimum design standards of this section.

a. Density. The number of units per acre shall not exceed the maximum as allowed for the classification of the property under the Future Land Use Element of the Comprehensive Plan. Acreage for density calculations shall not include areas of open water or lands within the "Conservation" classification of the Future Land Use Map.

b. Open space. Excluding roadways and parking areas open space shall make up a minimum of twenty (20) percent of the site area. The recreation area required under section 23-310 may be included to meet the open space requirement except that recreation buildings and parking areas shall not be included.

c. Recreation area. At minimum, recreation area shall be provided as required under section 23-310.

d. Parking spaces. In single-family and duplex PDPs where reductions in minimum lot size are granted, and in all multi-family PDPs, visitor parking areas with spaces in a ratio of one space per 10 dwelling units shall be provided in each neighborhood in addition to the minimum of 2 parking spaces for each dwelling unit. In projects of 100 units or more, parking spaces shall be provided at the recreation area in a ratio of one space per ten dwelling units. Recreation area parking in projects with less than 100 units may be used to meet the visitor parking requirement.

e. Building setbacks. The following minimum setbacks for principal buildings are required: 35 feet from any project property line and 50 feet from any major collector or arterial road as defined in section 23-303. For a building with more than one story, the building setback shall be increased by ten feet for each additional story.  Exceptions:

1. These requirements shall not apply to single-family houses on lots meeting the requirements for lot area and lot width at the building line for the zoning district in which the property lies.

2. The minimum setback from a non-frontage project property line may be reduced for one-story single-family houses provided the approving authority determines that the reduction will not adversely impact adjacent property and provided the setback is not reduced below the minimum setback required for the house in the zoning district in which the property lies.

3. The minimum front setbacks on a minor collector or local road may be reduced to allow for a neo-traditional development. 

(Ord. No. 2007-33, § 6, 9-4-2007; Ord. No. 2010-07, § 4, 4-20-10; Ord. No. 2015-02, § 1, 3-17-2015; Ord. No. 2020-30, § 1, 12-02-2020)

Sec. 23-443.2 Design guidelines for residential PDPs. Guidelines in this section are intended to assist the applicant in designing the project and the city in assessing the quality of the proposed development.

a. Relationship to surrounding area. The development is not isolated from the surrounding community, but is an integral part of the community. Methods for achieving:

Roadways and pedestrian/bike paths connect to the surrounding roadways, neighborhoods, commercial areas, and parks.

Streets extend or expand the existing street pattern. Collector streets do not terminate within the development.

Perimeter walls are discouraged in developments with under one hundred (100) units. In "gated" communities, perimeter walls are inconspicuous and heavily landscaped. Landscaping has a natural, rather than formalized appearance.

Entrances to the development are understated and do not promote the concept of a development that is separate from the surrounding community.

Pedestrian connections to surrounding streets are provided through landscaped buffers and perimeter walls.

b. Overall design. The layout of the development is suited to the configuration and characteristics of the land and integrates natural features into the overall design. Methods of achieving:

Natural features of the land, including wetlands, ponds, hills, and vegetation, are preserved and become the basis for the layout of the development.

Parks and open areas incorporate natural features for the enjoyment of all residents and become focal points for the development and for neighborhoods.

Roadways provide views of natural features and open space.

Changes in elevation are used as a design feature to provide interest.

Commercial areas in mixed-use developments are located for convenient and safe access from outside and inside the development by vehicles and pedestrians.

Location of buildings on ridges is avoided so that the rooftops do not dominate the landscape.

c. Neighborhoods. The development establishes identifiable neighborhoods engendering a feeling of belonging. Methods of achieving:

Dwellings are clustered rather than located in linear patterns on long streets. The number of dwellings in each single-family neighborhood does not exceed fifty (50).

Each neighborhood has its own common open space designed as a focal point and visible from most units. Central greens are encouraged.

Housing styles/types and streetscapes are chosen and designed to distinguish neighborhoods.

Front porches, small front yards, and walkways connecting to the street provide opportunities for social interaction.

d. Streetscapes. Streetscapes are designed to provide interest and variety; views of the street are attractive from the dwelling units and from the point of view of the pedestrian walking along the street. Methods of achieving:

Collector roads have landscaped medians or adjacent, landscaped pedestrian/bike corridors. Driveways intersecting collector roads are minimized.

Visual interest is provided along the street through distinctive landscaping and street lighting, and varied street and sidewalk patterns.

Location and orientation of houses or buildings on sites provides variety and distinctiveness to the street.

Building facades and entrance features are varied.

Building sizes and types are designed specifically for the lot size and shape.

Setbacks between houses are varied or breaks are provided in rows of houses for visual relief.

Mini-parks, neighborhood parks, and open space areas are located and landscaped to provide rest stops for pedestrians and to visually punctuate the streetscape. Benches or retaining walls provide seating.

Spine roads and long sections of local streets meander and are attractively landscaped

Long blocks are broken up with landscaped islands.

Plantings are chosen to distinguish the street or neighborhood from others.

Streets are oriented to provide views of open areas and vistas from hillsides.

Intersections have landscaping and design features to add interest and shield houses on corner lots.

Clutter along the street is minimized in dense neighborhoods by grouping mail boxes and trash collection stations, keeping signage to a minimum, and providing visitor parking areas.

See also Lighting.

e. Street system. A well-planned street system establishes coherence to the development, provides safe and efficient circulation for vehicles and pedestrians, and defines neighborhoods. Methods of achieving:

A hierarchy of streets is established, providing a coherent circulation system; a maze of local streets is avoided.

Loop roads and branches from a spine road provide access to neighborhoods. The use of culs de sac is minimized.

Streets within neighborhoods are designed to provide unity and definition to the neighborhood.

Streets are designed to allow for expansion of the development into nearby areas via collector roads.

f. Pedestrian circulation. A comprehensive system of sidewalks and bike paths throughout the development connects dwelling units to recreation areas, parking areas, public transportation stops, common buildings, and adjacent neighborhoods, and provides a safe and attractive walking environment for recreational and practical use.

The pedestrian/bike circulation system is planned as an integral part of the overall design of the development, providing connections between dwelling units and all facilities in the development.

Pedestrian/bike paths running along streets are buffered from the travel ways of streets by landscaped strips.

Pedestrian/bike paths are designed as recreational features or to double as recreational features. Paths that are separate from the vehicular ways are encouraged, provided they are in landscaped corridors and there are sufficient connections between dwelling units and likely destinations.

Paths meander through landscaped areas providing alternative routes for recreational walks and visual variety for the pedestrian; paths do not run unvaryingly parallel to streets.

Paths provide views of open areas, water bodies, wetlands, landscaped areas, streets, and neighborhoods.

g. Focal points and gathering places. Attractive and distinctive focal points and places for residents to gather, meet, and enjoy the outdoors are provided in the development. In keeping with a principle of Frederick Law Olmsted, the best part of the site is kept for the public. Methods of achieving:

In addition to neighborhood and mini-parks, recreation areas are provided to serve the entire community; these are located for easy access by all residents and incorporate and enhance natural features (whether existing or created), such as water bodies and groves of trees.

Landscaped areas double as recreation areas.

Recreation areas are designed to encourage gathering and interaction of residents. Path intersect, and benches or picnic areas are provided at intersections; gazebos, plazas, community buildings, playgrounds, picnic areas, seating near play courts, or similar facilities are provided.

In mixed-use developments, green areas are used to connect and integrate residential and mixed-use or commercial/professional areas.

Small parks provide focal points and gathering places within each neighborhood or for a group of neighborhoods.

Facilities in common areas are provided appropriate to the residents' ages and interests. Playgrounds, play courts, community buildings, bike paths, swimming pools, jogging paths, are examples.

h. Landscaping. Landscaping in the development provides visual interest, screening where needed, incorporates existing mature trees and other valuable vegetation, enhances natural features such as wetlands, and minimizes water use. Methods of achieving:

An overall landscaping concept is prepared for the development with attention to streetscape, plantings in recreation and common areas, attractive landscaping around buildings and in yards, retention of existing trees, and appropriateness of plant selections to the environment.

Streets, lot lines, and building envelopes are located to preserve existing trees, particularly in parks, front yards and in landscaped islands and street edges.

Native plant types and low water use species are used extensively.

Rear yards are buffered from roadways by landscaped buffers. A proliferation of individual privacy fences along streets is avoided.

Landscaping is provided to screen lots where a double line of lots is located so that back yards or side yards abut.

Where side building setbacks are small, plant materials are placed to screen side lot lines from the street.

All dumpsters and other mechanical facilities are screened attractively.

Frameworks for plants to grow on, such as trellises or arbors, are provided in parks and yards.

Existing or new large-caliper trees are used at focal points, providing the immediate impact of mature trees.

i. Parking and access. Sufficient provision is made for resident and visitor parking and access for services, such as deliveries and garbage pick-up, without street congestion or interference with sidewalks. Parking facilities do not dominate the streetscape. Methods for achieving:

Garages are recessed or oriented so that garage doors do not face the street.

Driveways run along the side of dwellings or extend to the back of the dwelling.

Parking areas are located to the side and rear of buildings; parking areas along street frontages are minimized.

Parking areas are set back from the road and are screened with landscaping, fences, or berms.

Small pods of parking are designed rather than large parking lots.

There is adequate street width where street parking is permitted.

Alleys provide service access and additional parking.

Driveways to dwellings are of adequate length to provide parking without vehicles encroaching on sidewalk.

Additional parking is provided for visitors and for recreation areas.

j. Lighting. Lighting is adequate for safety and enhances the streetscape, residential sites, parking areas, signs, and recreation facilities without being excessive or creating glare. Methods for achieving:

Light fixtures are directed downward to the areas targeted for illumination and do not create glare.

Decorative lighting is provided in recreation areas and along streets and pedestrian paths.

Signage is illuminated by upward directed spot lights and is not internally lit.

Bus stops, trash receptacles, mailboxes, and other facilities are well lit and accessed by pedestrian paths.

k. Neighborhood scale. Buildings are of appropriate scale for the lot or site and are compatible with adjacent existing or proposed development. Methods for achieving:

Architectural styles are chosen or guidelines are developed for each neighborhood in keeping with the lot sizes and layout in the neighborhood.

Multi-family buildings are broken into house-size building elements, especially where there is a building height transition from adjoining development.

Open space and landscaping separate neighborhoods or buildings with different scales.

Infill development is of the same scale as existing development in the neighborhood. Where proposed buildings are larger than existing buildings, the mass of the building is set back from the street, and the portion of the building along the street is compatible in scale with adjacent buildings.

Upper story planter boxes and roof plantings are provided for interest.

l. Privacy, safety, and security. Buildings and neighborhoods are designed to provide privacy, safety, and security for residents. Methods for achieving:

Window placement and landscaping provide privacy between houses, particularly on lots with small side yard setbacks.

Upper floors are stepped back to increase the distance of windows from the property lines.

Side and rear setbacks are not uniform; a side setback on one (1) side of a house is greater than on the other.

A greater side setback is provided for two-story houses than for one-story.

Front windows provide views of streets and neighborhood parks.

Rear yards are screened from adjacent rear yards through careful building configuration and landscaping.

Neighborhoods are small and have distinct entrances to promote a neighborhood identity and a sense of belonging for residents.

Where street parking is permitted, sidewalks are provided.

(Ord. No. 2006-24, § 15, 6-6-2006; Ord. No. 2022-06, § 1, 3-01-22)

§ 23-444. Commercial, industrial, and professional PDPs.
Latest version.

Sec. 23-444.1 Minimum design standards.

a. Intensity. The PDP may not exceed the limits of intensity set forth in the Comprehensive Plan for the Future Land Use classification of the property where the PDP is proposed.

b. Building setbacks. Principal buildings shall be set back thirty-five (35) feet from adjacent residential uses and zones and twenty (20) feet from other external property lines except front property lines. Principal buildings fronting on roads exterior to the project shall adhere to the front setback required in the zoning district where the project is located.

c. Buffers. A ten-foot wide, landscaped separation strip shall be provided along all property lines abutting a residential use or zone. Within this strip, a permanent visual screen, such as a wall or evergreen hedge, with a minimum height of six (6) feet shall be provided.

Sec. 23-444.2 Design guidelines.

a. Relationship to surrounding area. The development is not isolated from the surrounding community, but is an integral part of the community. The site plan for the development is complementary to site features of surrounding development and does not create incompatible juxtapositions. Methods for achieving:

Pedestrian and bike paths connect the development with surrounding residential and non-residential land uses and with pedestrian and bike paths along roadways in the vicinity of the project.

Cross access easements, roadway connections, and location of entrances facilitate vehicular access to the development from residential and non-residential land uses in the area surrounding the project.

Open space in the development is connected to open space and parks in adjacent development.

The backs of buildings, loading docks, outdoor storage areas, and dumpsters are located away from surrounding residential and other sensitive uses and are screened with attractive landscaping and/or fencing from adjacent uses and roadways.

Distance and solid fencing reduce noise from such uses as dumpsters and loading docks.

The scale, architectural style, and location of buildings is chosen to be compatible with surrounding development and to provide transitions from large or massive buildings to surrounding land uses, particularly single-family development.

b. Natural features of land. The layout of the development is suited to the configuration and characteristics of the land and integrates natural features into the overall design. Methods of achieving:

Natural features of the land, including wetlands, ponds, hills, and vegetation, are preserved and become the basis for the layout of the development.

Open areas incorporate natural features become focal points for the development.

Site layout allows views of natural features and open space from project entrances and public spaces such as restaurants and outdoor plazas.

Changes in site elevation are used as a design feature to provide interest.

c. Unified concept. The project creates an attractive and pleasant grouping of buildings with a unique identity and sense of place for employees and clients; buildings are not lined up parallel to the roadway with a large parking lot in front. Methods for achieving:

Buildings have architectural harmony and are located in functional and attractive groupings.

A design concept for the development, including out-parcels, promotes functional and architectural coherence. The concept addresses the relationships of buildings in terms of appearance and access by vehicles and pedestrians, includes plazas for outdoor gatherings, incorporates open space and natural features into the design, and provides attractive landscaping throughout.

Outparcels are situated to complement the overall design and do not visually dominate the project frontage.

Parking areas are designed for both convenience and attractiveness. Large areas of asphalt are avoided through sectioning off small parking areas, using landscaped separation strips, and through creative site layout.

Signage and landscaping are planned to unify buildings and uses and to promote design coherence to the whole project.

The development has a unifying feature or features, such as a central plaza, giving a sense of overall design and providing places for outdoor events and social interaction.

The site layout and landscaping avoids the appearance from the street of a huge, unrelieved parking lot.

d. Circulation. The development is easily accessible to vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians. Methods for achieving:

Vehicular entrances and access roads do not direct traffic entering the site directly to the front of the building, but to parking aisles.

The site design integrates parking among the buildings or wraps parking around two (2) or more sides of buildings rather than consolidating all parking spaces in a large parking area that is segregated from the building(s).

Multiple pedestrian access points to a group of buildings and adjacent parking areas avoids vehicular congestion at the front of a building and competition for parking near one (1) entrance.

The distance from any parking space to a building entrance is minimized; optimum distance: less than one hundred fifty (150) feet.

Parking aisles are short and wide to allow safe passage of pedestrians and vehicles.

Bicycle lanes or paths are provided from adjacent bike paths and local streets; bike racks are provided close to buildings.

Walkways, separate from vehicular ways are provided for pedestrians.

e. Landscaping and lighting. An attractive and pedestrian-scale atmosphere is created through abundant landscaping and pleasant, unobtrusive lighting. Methods for achieving:

Landscaped areas create green corridors through and around parking areas, breaking up large areas of parking.

Large caliper trees are preserved or planted in selected focal areas to provide immediate mature landscaping.

Lighting poles are decorative, low, and directed downward to light parking areas and pedestrian paths.

Landscaped areas are combined with pedestrian paths.

Tree locations and species are chosen to provide shade in parking areas and plazas.

Outdoor eating areas are located in areas specifically designed for them, such as plazas between buildings or open areas distant from high vehicular traffic.

(Ord. No. 2007-33, § 7, 9-4-2007)

§ 23-445. Mixed-use PDPs.
Effective: Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Mixed-use PDPs are allowed in C-1, C-2R, C-5, and PF zoning districts, and in the C-2 and C-3 zoning district where allowed under the land use classification on the Future Land Use Map of the Comprehensive Plan. Mixed-use developments in C-2R and PF zoning districts may be approved through the site plan process set forth in 23-222 unless there are multiple principal buildings, in which case, PDP approval is required.

Sec. 23-445.1 Minimum standards.

a. Density and intensity. Mixed-use developments shall not exceed the density and intensity limits for the Future Land Use designation of the property as set forth in the Future Land Use Element of the Comprehensive Plan.

Except in the C-1 (downtown) and C-5 (village center) districts, the maximum non-residential square footage allowed in a mixed-use development shall be determined by the following formula: Two thousand five hundred (2,500) times the maximum number of dwelling units allowed on the property per the Future Land Use Classification. Where fewer units are proposed than the maximum number of dwelling units allowed, an additional two thousand five hundred (2,500) square feet of non-residential area shall be added for each unit allowed, but not proposed.

b. Building setbacks. Except in developments in the C-1 (downtown) and C-5 (village center) districts, principal buildings shall be set back fifty (50) feet from adjacent residential uses and zones and twenty (20) feet from other property lines except front property lines. In all districts, principal buildings fronting on an arterial or major collector road exterior to the project shall adhere to the front setback required in the zoning district where the project is located.

c. Buffers. Except in developments in the C-1 (downtown) and C-5 (village center) districts, a ten-foot wide, landscaped separation strip shall be provided along all property lines abutting a residential use or zone. Within this strip, a permanent visual screen, such as a wall or evergreen hedge, with a minimum height of six (6) feet shall be provided.

d. Recreation. Except in the C-1 district, recreation areas shall be provided per the requirements of section 23-310

Sec. 23-445.2 Design guidelines for mixed use PDPs except village centers. (See section 23-445.3 for design guidelines for village centers.)

The design guidelines for residential and those for commercial, industrial, and professional PDPs shall also apply to mixed use PDPs. In addition, dwelling units within a mixed-use development provide tenants with a setting and amenities appropriate for residential use; apartments do not appear as an afterthought in the development.

Methods for achieving:

Dwelling units are located away from busy roadways or are shielded from traffic noise by solid fencing and landscaping.

Outdoor space for recreation is located conveniently for the use of residents and provides facilities for their enjoyment.

The site layout and landscaping provides for the safety and privacy of residents.

Sec. 23-445.3 Design guidelines for village centers (C-5 districts).

a. Overall concept. A village center is a commercial, business, and social center with the characteristics of a traditional downtown. Its primary focus is serving residents in the surrounding residential area though it may have businesses that attract patrons from the larger community. Methods for achieving:

The center contains a variety of uses catering to residents, such as convenience stores, barber shops and hair salons, dry cleaning businesses, restaurants, branch banks, and video rental stores.

Mixed use buildings containing businesses and residences, as well as residential buildings, are included in the village center. Residential densities decrease with distance from the center, providing a transition to low density residential areas.

Buildings are arranged in a compact configuration with a pedestrian orientation.

Public spaces, such as plazas and central greens, provide focal points, informal gathering places, and opportunities for special events.

The village center is designed to serve the pedestrian rather than the vehicle.

b. Access and circulation. Access to the village center is safe and convenient for pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles from nearby residential areas as well as exterior roadways; the village center is oriented for the pedestrian rather than the vehicle.

Access to the village center from surrounding residential areas is safe and convenient for pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles.

Bike racks are provided close to businesses and parks.

A major or minor collector provides access from exterior roadways to the village center and provides a transition to minor collectors and local streets within the village center.

The village center streets have low speed limits and a comprehensive system of sidewalks and crosswalks.

Peripheral parking areas are provided; street parking is permitted.

Parking areas are located to the side and rear of buildings and serve multiple businesses.

c. Open space. Open space in the village center provides recreation for its residents and visitors and provides areas for special events. Methods for achieving:

Parks and open space provide connections between residential areas and the village center.

Plazas, greens, neighborhood parks, and mini-parks are centrally located within the village center.

Benches, gazebos, landscaping, decorative lighting and other facilities are provided to encourage social interaction and enjoyment of open space in the village center.

Outdoor eating areas are provided away from vehicular traffic and adjacent to public spaces.

d. Streetscape. The village center streetscape is similar to the traditional downtown. Methods for achieving:

Buildings are located close to streets and have direct access to the sidewalk.

Streets have sidewalks with low, decorative lighting, street trees, and street furniture.

Less than thirty (30) percent of the street frontage is occupied by parking areas.

Architectural guidelines ensure that all buildings in the village center are compatible in style and scale. No large scale buildings dominate the streetscape.

(Ord. No. 2018-07, § 5, 09-19-18)